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The Urologic Diseases Dictionary E - K


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ectopic kidney (ek-TOP-ik) (KID-nee):

a birth defect in which a kidney is in an abnormal position.


see erectile dysfunction.

ejaculation (ee-JAK-yoo-LAY-shuhn):

the sudden release of semen through the penis during sexual climax.

electrical stimulation (ee-LEK-truh-kuhl) (STIM-yoo-LAY-shun):

the use of a mild electrical current applied to the nerves that control the bladder to treat urinary and fecal incontinence.

end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (END-STAYJ) (REE-nuhl) (dih-ZEEZ):

total and permanent kidney failure. When the kidneys fail, the body retains fluid. Harmful wastes build up. A person with ESRD needs treatment to replace the work of the failed kidneys.

endoscope (EN-doh-skohp):

any tubelike instrument used to look inside the body. Endoscopes used for urologic exams include the cystoscope and the ureteroscope.

enuresis (EN-yoo-REE-sis):

urinary incontinence not caused by a physical disorder. The term enuresis is usually used as a synonym for bedwetting, although the term can also be used to describe daytime incontinence. Daytime incontinence is called diurnal enuresis. Bedwetting, or nighttime incontinence, is called nocturnal enuresis.

erectile dysfunction (ED) (ee-REK-tyl) (diss-FUHNK-shuhn):

the inability to get or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Also called impotence.

erection (ee-REK-shuhn):

enlargement and hardening of the penis caused by increased blood flow into the penis and decreased blood flow out of it as a result of sexual excitement.


see end-stage renal disease.


see extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (EKS-truh-kor-POH-ree-uhl) (shok) (wayv) (LITH-oh-TRIP-see):

a nonsurgical procedure using shock waves to break up kidney stones.


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frequency (FREE-kwen-see):

see urinary frequency.

functional incontinence (FUNK-shun-uhl) (in-KON-tih-nenss):

incontinence caused by physical disability, external obstacles, or problems in thinking or communicating that prevent a person from reaching a toilet in time.


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genitals (JEN-ih-tuhls):

sex organs, including the penis and testicles in men and the vagina, vulva, and uterus in women.

glucose (GLOO-kohss):

one of the simplest forms of sugar.


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hematuria (HEE-muh-TYOO-ree-uh):

blood in the urine, which can be a sign of a kidney stone or other urinary problem.

hormone (HOR-mohn):

a natural chemical produced in one part of the body and released into the blood to trigger or regulate particular body functions. Antidiuretic hormone tells the kidneys to slow down urine production.

hydronephrosis (HY-droh-neh-FROH-siss):

backup and buildup of extra urine within the kidney and renal pelvis, usually because something is blocking urine from flowing into or out of the bladder.

hydroureter (HY-droh-YOOR-uh-tur):

backup and buildup of extra urine within the ureter, usually because something is blocking urine from flowing into or out of the bladder.

Front-view drawing of the urinary tract with a blockage. One kidney and ureter are swollen. The swollen kidney is labeled hydronephrosis. The swollen ureter is labeled hydroureter.
 Hydronephrosis and hydroureter

hypercalciuria (HY-pur-KAL-see-YOO-ree-uh):

abnormally large amounts of calcium in the urine, leading to kidney stones.

hyperoxaluria (HY-pur-OK-suh-LYOO-ree-uh):

unusually large amounts of oxalate in the urine, leading to kidney stones.

hyperplaysia (hy-pur-PLAY-zhee-uh):

growth of cells that do not lead to cancer in an organ or other tissues. See benign prostatic hyperplasia.

hypospadias (HY-poh-SPAY-dee-uhss):

A birth defect in which the opening of the urethra, called the urinary meatus, is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.


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see intermittent catheterization and interstitial cystitis.

ileal conduit (IL-ee-uhl) (KON-doo-it):

a kind of urostomy in which a section of the bowel is surgically removed from the digestive tract and repositioned to serve as a passage for urine from the kidneys and ureters to a stoma.

Drawing of a male figure with the urinary tract and intestines visible in the abdomen. The ureters are connected directly to a conduit, or tube, made from the colon. The conduit directs urine directly to a hole in the skin called a stoma. Labels point to the stoma, ileal conduit, and ureters.
 Ileal conduit urostomy

immune system (ih-MYOON) (SISS-tuhm):

the body's system for protecting itself from viruses and bacteria or any foreign substances.

immunosuppressant (IM-yoo-noh-soo-PRESS-uhnt):

a drug given to stop the natural responses of the body’s immune system. Immunosuppressants are given to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a transplant—for example, a kidney transplant—and to people with certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus.

impotence (IM-puh-tenss):

see erectile dysfunction.

incontinence (in-KON-tih-nenss):

loss of bladder or bowel control; the accidental loss of urine or stool.

Indiana pouch (IN-dee-AN-uh) (powch):

see continent cutaneous reservoir.

indwelling urinary catheter (IN-dweh-ling) (YOOR-ih-NAIR-ee) (KATH-uh-tur):

a catheter placed in the bladder and urethra to release and collect urine over long periods of time.

inflammation (IN-fluh-MAY-shuhn):

swelling and redness that results from injury to tissue.

insulin (IN-suh-lin):

a hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy.

intermittent catheterization (IC) (IN-tur-MIT-ent) (KATH-uh-tur-eye-ZAY-shuhn):

short-term use of a catheter to release and collect urine. The catheter is removed as soon as the bladder is completely empty.

interstitial cystitis (IC) (IN-tur-STISH-uhl) (siss-TY-tiss):

a disorder that causes the bladder wall to become swollen and irritated, leading to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. IC is also called painful bladder syndrome.

intravenous pyelogram (IN-truh-VEE-nuhss) (PY-el-oh-GRAM):

an x ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected into a vein in the patient’s arm, travels through the body to the kidneys, and makes urine visible on the x ray and to show any blockage in the urinary tract.

irrigation (IHR-ih-GAY-shuhn):

flushing the bladder or a continent cutaneous reservoir using a stream of water delivered through a catheter.


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Kegel exercises (KEG-uhl) (EK-sur-SYZ-iz):

tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position. These exercises can improve a person's ability to hold in urine. Also called pelvic muscle exercises.

kidney (KID-nee):

one of the two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes from the blood. The kidneys are located near the middle of the back, one on each side of the spine. They create urine, which is delivered to the bladder through tubes called ureters.

kidney stone (KID-nee) (stohn):

a stone that develops from crystals that form in urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney, in the renal pelvis, or in the ureters. Kidney stones include calcium oxalate stones, cystine stones, struvite stones, and uric acid stones. See nephrolithiasis.

Drawing of three kinds of kidney stones labeled golf ball-sized and brown, jagged and yellow, and small and smooth.
 Kinds of kidney stones

Kock pouch (kohk) (powch):

see continent cutaneous reservoir.

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Page last updated September 9, 2010


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